《Efficient State-based CRDTs by Delta-Mutation》 阅读笔记。

论文地址 代码地址

1. CmRDT 和 CvRDT 的不足

本文作者认为 CmRDT 的不足之处有三:

  • 为确保幂等性:要求消息传输提供 exactly once 的保证 (本身幂等的操作无需此约束)
  • 因为两两节点之间都需通信以协调,故动态维护节点之间拓扑结构较为麻烦
  • 要求操作在所有节点上单独执行(即使是批量操作)

CvRDT 的不足之处则主要在于每次需要传递当前状态,通信消耗过大。

2. Delta-state CRDTs

2.1. Definition

Delta-mutator: A delta-mutator $m^\delta$ is a function, corresponding to an update operation, which takes a state $\mathrm{X}$ in a join-semilattice $\mathrm{S}$ as parameter and returns a delta-mutation $m^\delta(\mathrm{X})$, also in $\mathrm{S}$.

Delta-group: A delta-group is inductively defined as either a delta-mutation or a join of several delta-group.

$\delta$-CRDT: A $\delta$-CRDT consists of a triple $(\mathrm{S}, \mathrm{M}^\delta, \mathrm{Q})$, where $\mathrm{S}$ is a join-semilattice, $\mathrm{M}^\delta$ is a set of delta-mutators, and $\mathrm{Q}$ is a set of query functions, where the state transition at each replica is given by either joining the current state $\mathrm{X} \in \mathrm{S}$ with a delta-mutation:

$$\mathrm{X'} = \mathrm{X} \sqcup m^\delta(\mathrm{X})$$

or joining the current state with some received delta-group $\mathrm{D}$:

$$\mathrm{X'} = \mathrm{X} \sqcup \mathrm{D}$$

2.2. Delta-state decomposition of standards CRDTs

A $\delta$-CRDT $(\mathrm{S}, \mathrm{M}^\delta, \mathrm{Q})$ is a delta-state decomposition of a state-based CRDT $(\mathrm{S}, \mathrm{M}, \mathrm{Q})$, if for every mutator $m \in \mathrm{M}$, we have a corresponding mutator $m^\delta \in \mathrm{M}^\delta$ such that, for every state $\mathrm{X} \in \mathrm{S}$:

$$m(\mathrm{X}) = \mathrm{X} \sqcup m^\delta(\mathrm{X})$$

因此我们的目标便是寻找满足上式的 $m^\delta(\mathrm{X})$,很明显 $m(\mathrm{X})$ 是一个解,因此 CvRDT 是 $\delta$-CRDT 的一种特殊形式。为了克服 CvRDT 通信消耗大的缺点,很明显我们想得到的解需满足以下条件:

$$size(m^\delta(\mathrm{X})) \ll size(m(\mathrm{X}))$$

3. State Convergence

$\delta$-CRDT convergence: Consider a set of replicas of a $\delta$-CRDT object, replica $i$ evolving along a sequence of state $\mathrm{X}^0_i = \perp, \mathrm{X}^1_i$…, each replica performing delta-mutations of the form $m^\delta_{i,k}(\mathrm{X}^k_i)$ at some subset of its sequnece of states, and evolving by joining the current state either with self-generated deltas or with delta-groups received from others. If each delta-mutation $m^\delta(\mathrm{X}^k_i)_{i,k}$ produced at each replica is joined (directly or as part of a delta-group) at least once with every other replica, all replica states become equal.

join 操作满足结合律、交换律和幂等易得此结论。

3.1. Basic anti-entropy algorithm


The basic algorithm operators in two modes:

  • transitive mode: deltas received at node $i$ from node $j$ can later be sent to some other node $k$ (line 21)
  • direct mode: a delta-group is exclusively the join of local delta-mutations (line 23)

4. Causal Consistency

CvRDT 中每次传输的是 full state,隐式地确保了因果一致性,而在 $\delta$-CRDT 中若想提供因果一致性则需要满足某些条件。

Delta-interval: Given a replica $i$ progressing along the states $\mathrm{X}_i^0, \mathrm{X}_i^1, \dots$ by joining delta $d_i^k$ (either local delta-mutation or recived delta-group) into $\mathrm{X}_i^k$ to obtain $\mathrm{X}_i^{k+1}$, a delta-interval $\Delta_i^{a,b}$ is a delta-group resulting from joining deltas $d_i^a,\dots, d_i^{b-1}$:

$$\Delta_i^{a,b} = \bigsqcup\{d_i^k | a \le k < b\}$$

Delta-interval-based anti-entropy algorithm: A given anti-entropy algorithm for $\delta$-CRDTs is delta-interval-based, if all deltas sent to other replicas are delta-intervals.

Causal delta-merging condition: A delta-interval based anti-entropy algorithm is said to satisfy the causal delta-merging condition if the algorithm only joins $\Delta_j^{a, b}$ from replica $j$ into state $\mathrm{X}_i$ of replica $i$ that satisfy:

$$\mathrm{X}_i \sqsupseteq \mathrm{X}_j^a$$

容易看出上述约束就是通过对消息排序,从而显示地保证因果一致性。也就是说,节点 $j$ 在发送 $\Delta_j^{a,b}$ 之前所 merge 的来自其他节点的 delta-interval 都已被节点 $i$ 所 merge。

$\delta$-CRDT causal consistency: Any $\delta$-CRDT in which states are propagated and joined using a delta-interval-based anti-entropy algorithm satisfying the causal delta-merging condition ensures causal consistency.

也即想要提供因果一致性的保证,basic anti-entropy algorithm 需满足以下约束:

  • Delta-interval-based anti-entropy algorithm
  • 满足 Causal delta-merging condition

CRDT and $\delta$-CRDT correspondence: Let $(\mathrm{S}, \mathrm{M}, \mathrm{Q})$ be sa standard state-based CRDT and $(\mathrm{S}, \mathrm{M}^\delta, \mathrm{Q})$ a corresponding delta-state decomposition. Any $\delta$-CRDT state reachable by an execution $\mathrm{E}^\delta$ over $(\mathrm{S}, \mathrm{M}^\delta, \mathrm{Q})$, by a delta-interval based anto-entropy algorithm $\mathrm{A}^\delta$ satisfying the causal delta-merging condition, is equal to a state resulting from an execution $\mathrm{E}$ over $(\mathrm{S}, \mathrm{M}, \mathrm{Q})$, having the corresponding data-type operations, by an anti-entropy algorithm $A$ for state-based CRDTs.

4.1. Anti-entropy algorithm ensuring causal consistency of $\delta$-CRDT


  • Each node $i$ keeps a contiguous sequence of deltas $d_i^l, \dots, d_i^u$ in map $\mathrm{D}$ from integers to deltas, with $l = min(dom(\mathrm{D})), u = max(dom(\mathrm{D}))$.
  • Each node $i$ keeps an acknowledgments map $\mathrm{A}$ that stores, for each neighbor $j$, the largest index $b$ for all delta-intervals $\Delta_i^{a,b}$ acknowledged by $j$ (after $j$ receives $\Delta_i^{a,b}$ from $i$ and joins it into $\mathrm{X}_j$)
  • 可以看出,在 Algorithm 2 中,确保 Causal delta-merging condition 由发送方完成

推论:Algorithm 2 produces the same reachable states as a standard algorithm over a CRDT for which the $\delta$-CRDT is a decomposition.

5. Examples

5.1. $\delta$-CRDT Counter


  • The CRDT state $\Sigma$ is a map from replica identifiers to positive integers
  • $inc_i^\delta$ increments the map entry correspondingto the local replica and only returns that entry, instead of the full map as inc in the state-based CRDT counter does.

5.2. $\delta$-CRDTs for Add-Wins OR-Sets


Add-Wins OR-Set with tombstones

  • The state $\Sigma$ consists of a set of tagged elements and a set of tags, acting as tombstones
  • Globally unique tags of the form $\mathbb{I} \times \mathbb{N}$ are used and ensured by pairing a replica identifier in $\mathbb{I}$ with a monotonically increasing natural counter.
  • s 中记录添加操作的结果,在 t 中记录删除操作的结果,两个集合保持单调递增

Optimized Add-Wins OR-Set

  • 符号含义和 With Tombstones 版本相同
  • 维护 causal context set c 而不是 tombstones set t
  • s 中记录此时存在的元素,在 c 中记录操作历史信息
  • 合并操作中,c 可直接 joins 在合并之后,保存的是满足以下条件之一的元素
    • the tripls present in both sets (therefore, not removed in either)
    • any triple present in one of the sets and whose tag is not present in the causal context of the other state.

    $s \cap s'$ 的存在兼容了传递的信息为 full-state 的情况

Tips: When using an anti-entropy algorithm that provides causal consistency, then for each replica state $\mathrm{X}_i = (s_i, c_i)$ and replica identifier $j \in \mathbb{I}$, we have a contiguous sequence:

$$1 \le n \le max(\{k | (j, k) \in c_i\}) \Rightarrow (j, n) \in c_i$$


5.3. Optimized Multi-value Register $\delta$-CRDT